Bibliography: Russia (page 127 of 140)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Russia is NOT the Enemy website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Christopher J. Hurn, Robert A. Feldmesser, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Educational, Jindra Kulich, Melvin H. Bernstein, Ralph C. Staiger, Mary C. Carlson, William Lipsky, Scott B. Birkinshaw, and Barbara B. Burn.

Carlson, Mary C. (1981). The Rural School Building in North Central and Northwestern North Dakota: A Brief Description. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier. The time period and the pioneer conditions that existed when north central and northwestern North Dakota were settled determined the type of rural schools that were established there. Those areas were settled between 1885 and 1910. Most of the settlers in that area of the state were of Scandinavian (particularly Norwegian) extraction. The vast majority came from a background that valued universal free education. Most early rural schools were small frame buildings with a common dimension of 18 by 32 feet. As far as can be determined, none of the early schools in the area had their architecture inspired by ethnic influences. The majority were built to meet state specifications and copied from designs in state plan books. Exceptions were the very early sod and log schools; sod schools appeared more frequently in the communities composed of Germans from Russia. Trees were seldom a feature of the school grounds. School outhouses often lacked attention. A considerable number of rural schools in North Dakota are being preserved and restored, but not in their original setting. Although many rural schools remain scattered over the countryside in their original locations, nearly all are abandoned and neglected. (Appended charts detail school locations and construction.)   [More]  Descriptors: Construction Materials, Educational Attitudes, Educational Facilities Planning, Educational History

Hurn, Christopher J.; Burn, Barbara B. (1982). An Analytic Comparison of Educational Systems: Overview of Purposes, Policies, Structures and Outcomes. Comparative Overview/Comparative Assessment. This comparative evaluation of the differing educational systems in North America, Europe, the USSR, and Japan examines the goals and values of these systems. It is pointed out that Americans value equality, practicality, and utility and that they are both individualistic and suspicious of government authority. Contrasts between these values and those implicit in the societies in Western Europe, Russia, and Japan are explored. The structure and organization of educational systems is also discussed. Judgments are offered concerning the effective locus of power in such matters as school organization, curriculum, and personnel policies. The Soviet Union, France, and Japan are identified as highly centralized systems and comparison is made between the structure of these sytems and those of Western Europe (mixed local, regional, and central control), and America and Canada, where local control is usually decisive. The selectivity of these systems is discussed as they reflect cultural attitudes toward the upward mobility of citizens. Differences and similarities in educational outcomes and policy implications between the systems are are also pointed out, and special consideration is given to changes in attitudes toward schooling over the past few decades. Appendix I contains an analysis of science and mathematics education in the Soviet Union and Japan. Appendix II discusses equivalencies in secondary schooling in the United States, Canada, Japan, the Soviet Union, Japan, and West Germany. Statistics on school enrollments are presented in tabular format.    [More]  Descriptors: Academic Standards, Access to Education, Communism, Comparative Education

Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior (1921). Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume II. Bulletin, 1919, No. 89. Volume II of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-1918 includes the following chapters: (1) Education in Great Britain and Ireland (I. L. Kandel); (2) Education in parts of the British Empire: Educational Developments in the Dominion of Canada (Walter A. Montgomery), Public School System of Jamaica (Charles A. Asbury), Recent Progress of Education in Australia and New Zealand (Theresa Bach), Recent Progress of Education in the Union of South Africa (Theresa Bach), The Progress of Education in India (Walter A. Montgomery), Education of Jews in Palestine (Theresa Bach); (3) Education in France in 1916-18 (I. L. Kandel); (4) Education in Italy (Walter A. Montgomery); (5) Education in Germany (I. L. Kandel); (6) The schools of Austria-Hungary (Peter H. Pearson); (7) Switzerland (Peter H. Pearson); (8) Educational changes in Russia (Theresa Bach); (9) Educational conditions in Spain (Walter A. Montgomery); (10) Schools in Scandinavia, Finland, and Holland (Peter H. Pearson); (11) Some phases of educational progress in Latin America (Walter A. Montgomery); and (12) Educational conditions in Japan (Walter A. Montgomery). An index is included. Individual chapters contain footnotes, references, and tables. [For Volume I, see ED541459. Best copy available has been provided.]   [More]  Descriptors: Jews, Foreign Countries, Educational Change, Educational Methods

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Vocational Education. (1983). Trends, Needs and Priorities of Environmental Education since the Tbilisi Conference: An Overview. Preliminary Report of a World Survey. Environmental Education Series 1. In 1981-82 a questionnaire was sent to member countries of UNESCO by the International Environmental Education Programme (IEEP) to determine current needs, priorities, and major trends in environmental education. Of particular interest to the IEEP were developments since the 1977 Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education held in Tbilisi, Russia. This document contains the preliminary analysis of results of the questionnaire, along with information collected through other recent publications and documents. Part 1, which is devoted to world trends, needs and priorities, is divided into three chapters. These chapters focus on: (1) descriptions of action undertaken by UNESCO with a view to developing environmental education since the Tbilisi conference; (2) discussions of progress and trends in the development of environmental education throughout the world today, on the basis of national experiences and guidelines; and (3) identification of the most pressing needs to be fulfilled concerning environmental education and member state's priorities for action in this respect. Part 2 consists of two chapters which focus on regional particularities in the discussion of the problems of environmental education. Descriptors: Adult Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education, Global Approach

Friedman, Sheila (1985). "The Mozart of Psychology": "Mind in Society" by L. S. Vygotsky: Implications for Improving Literacy. L. S. Vygotsky's book "Mind in Society" was published more than 50 years ago in Russia, but it is now being recognized as relevant to contemporary research in child development because of the areas of investigation that he suggested. Vygotsky views children as active participants in their own learning and suggests that researchers analyze processes, reveal causes, reconstruct points of development, and study responses to teaching. He sees the developmental process as lagging behind the learning process; therefore, it should be the concern of research to show how external information becomes internalized. Vygotsky also examines the link between play and socialization. For him, imagination is play without action, but in play the rules are determined by the child's ideas, not by the object. He also finds connections between play and language development. While developing speech, children free themselves from immediate environmental constraints. They can plan, order, and control themselves and others. Speech organizes and unifies disparate aspects of behavior, such as perception, memory, and problem solving. "Writing," which follows next, "must be relevant to life," insists Vygotsky. By helping children "write" through making marks and pictures in kindergarten, allowing them gradually to develop skill and also maintain enthusiasm because they find their writing efforts relevant, educators could improve literacy substantially. Descriptors: Beginning Reading, Child Development, Child Language, Child Psychology

Menyalenko, L. G. (1981). Major Quantitative Developments in the Field of Education in the East-European Socialist Countries in the 1970's. This paper examines educational development in East-European socialist countries in the 1970's. The main emphasis is on Russia. The paper is organized topically. Topics discussed include: educational policies and plans; general principles of educational development; indicators of the levels of educational attainments; population dynamics; preschool education; primary and secondary education; vocational training; and new trends in financing. On the whole, the analyses of the development of education in these socialist countries demonstrate a wide diversity of patterns of educational policies, structures, contents, and methods. Often it appeared impossible to identify trends which would be characteristic for all the countries. In some cases the developments were going in opposite directions. Therefore, the paper includes analytical information for the entire group of countries and, where possible, by separate countries. In general, long term educational plans in socialist countries have several main objectives. The first is to help youth acquire solid scientific and technological knowledge and instill in them a deep ideological conviction. The second objective refers to the further development and improvement of the existing and the building of the new structure of the educational system. The third objective is the socioeconomic efficiency of education. Descriptors: Communism, Comparative Education, Educational Development, Educational Finance

Bernstein, Melvin H. (1986). Higher Education and the State: New Linkages for Economic Development. Postsecondary Education for a Changing Economy Project. Connections between higher education and state governments to promote economic development are discussed, including a regional economic development project in New England, and four partnerships between higher education and the state in Georgia, Iowa, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. International examples from France, Great Britain, Russia, and China are also briefly considered. Federal aid for a regional pilot project to the New England Board of Higher Education is designed to inform legislators about the significance of higher education to state economies and the region, and to better prepare legislators to make more informed judgments on issues concerning investment in human capital. Other programs of note are: the Ben Franklin Partnership in Pennsylvania, which focuses on the use of new technologies in basic industries; Georgia's Industrial Extension Service, which provides technical information to counties and companies; the Bay State Skills Corporation in Massachusetts, which provides job training; and Iowa's Industrial New Jobs Training Program for business and industry. Appended is "The Public Investment in Higher Education," a policy briefing report for legslators from Vermont. Approaches for improving the quality of information provided to legislatures include: annual performance report, better communication, informed public debate, and information on state research expenditures per faculty member.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Cooperative Programs, Economic Climate, Economic Development

Seiferth, Berniece B; And Others (1984). History and Art: The Heart of Art. Learning to appreciate religious art and to understand the interdependence of history and art are basic to the foundations of culture. Students need to be exposed to the art of the diverse adherents of all major religions in order to understand the beliefs and practices of others. Students can examine religious art from ancient times, including sacred spaces set aside to summon sacred deities (e.g., Stonehenge in England) and the drawings and paintings of animals found on the walls of caves in southwestern Europe. Students can also examine the effects that Christianity had upon sculpture, painting, churches, cathedrals, and stained glass; the Renaissance influence; how the conflict between the Christian religion and the affairs of state in Russia resulted in the building of magnificent cathedrals; how history influenced the work of some artists who attempted to portray the world around them, especially the world of the downtrodden; the art of Islamic culture; and the art of Buddhism and Hinduism in India and China. Descriptors: Art Education, Art History, Cultural Awareness, Higher Education

Kulich, Jindra (1987). Adult Education in Continental Europe: An Annotated Bibliography of English-Language Materials 1983-1985. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education. This bibliography, the fifth in a series covering monographs on comparative and area studies in adult education from 1945 to the present, covers the three-year period between 1983 and 1985. Annotations of 661 works dealing with Europe as a whole, Scandinavia, pre-1945 Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, pre-1917 Russia, the USSR, and 22 other countries located on the continent of Europe. The annotations are arranged into sections by the area or country covered in them. Within the country sections, works are further subdivided by topic. The following are among the topics covered: bibliographies, directories, and dictionaries; general overviews, collections, and yearbooks; the history of adult education; comparative studies; biographies; legislation; finance of adult education; international organizations and cooperation; statewide adult education systems and organizations; adult educators and training; the theory of adult education; research in adult education; folk high schools, residential programs, university extension, night schools, adult education centers, and people's and workers' universities; palaces and houses of culture, voluntary associations, study circles, and discussion groups; correspondence study, distance education, and independent study; continuing education and retraining; postsecondary and higher education; rural adult education and agricultural extension; armed services education; and consumer, religious, physical, leisure, and preretirement education. Author and subject indexes are provided.    [More]  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Education, Annotated Bibliographies, Area Studies

Lipsky, William; And Others (1980). Filmstrips for Area Studies: A Critical Evaluation of K-12 Learning Materials. Occasional Paper No. 7. This publication contains critical analyses of filmstrips dealing with five major world areas: Russia and East Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Near East. The filmstrips are for use in elementary and secondary classrooms. One hundred and fifty filmstrips produced between 1970 and the present and available from commercial publishers and distributors were chosen for inclusion. Each filmstrip was reviewed by at least two persons, one with expertise in the content area and one with expertise in curriculum and instruction. The evaluations are organized by area under study and by grade level within each area. Bibliographical data provided for each entry includes title of filmstrip, publisher, publication date, grade level, and filmstrip components. The evaluation contains a description of the filmstrip's subject matter and major themes, a critical evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the filmstrip, and a discussion of the Teacher's Guide. The evaluation instrument utilized is included. This publication is the second stage of the Multicultural Education Project of the UCLA Curriculum Inquiry Center which was established to further multicultural studies in the K-12 area. In the first stage of the project, center staff developed annotated bibliographies of print and nonprint learning materials dealing with the five major world areas. Descriptors: African Culture, African History, Area Studies, Asian Studies

Mead, Margaret (1976). New Lives to Old: The Effects of New Communication on Old Cultures in the Pacific. Paper No. 15. Since World War II the peoples of the Pacific Islands have changed rapidly from primitive isolated groups to social units that are in touch with the rest of the world. Because these changes have occurred within a short span of time, the island people, particularly the Manus, have provided the following anthropological data: a civilization can determine the direction that change will take; related elements must be changed simultaneously to assure the proper adjustment throughout the culture; change within the social organization precedes technological change; and planned change requires a model society for its foundation. For the technologically oriented systems of Russia and the United States, both seeking to impose their values on the world, the Pacific Islands offer small ecological models for the future that underline the importance of diversity, the dangers of uniformity and of assuming a model totally without discretion, and the possibility of economic blackmail if one culture controls an essential commodity. Even worldwide communication can permit the diversity of small groups and small languages if only the things that life, death, and communication depend upon are made uniform. Descriptors: Anthropology, Change Strategies, Communication (Thought Transfer), Cross Cultural Studies

Birkinshaw, Scott B. (). Isaac Kandel's Methodology of Comparative Education. The paper presents an analytical criticism of Isaac Kandel's methodology. Isaac Kandel, who compared the educational systems of England, France, Russia, Germany, Italy, and the United States in "Comparative Education," 1933, is credited with laying the foundations of the scientific study of comparative education. The paper criticizes three aspects of Kandel's methodology–his almost exclusively macrocosmic point of view, his nationalistic analysis of the relationship between society and education, and his lack of objectivity. Because Kandel overemphasized the macrocosmic point of view, he stressed the image of educational systems as expressions of the common culture of each nation. This preference for generalization presents a false image of nationally unified educational systems, fails to take dissenting minorities into account, and results in simplified statements about national character. Because historical analysis is an important tool for scholars of comparative education, it should be as useful as possible. Kandel's methodology would be more useful if it were more scientific. The conclusion is that Kandel's methodology will be improved by: (1) creating a balance between macro- and micro-historical analysis; (2) taking into account the possible need for a plurality of educational systems and policies; and (3) making comparative education research more scientific and neutral. Descriptors: Analytical Criticism, Classification, Comparative Education, Cross Cultural Studies

Carlson, Mary C.; Carlson, Robert L. (1981). The Country School and the Americanization of Ethnic Groups in North Dakota. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier. In North Dakota, the schools played the major role in imparting American culture to the immigrants who by 1920 numbered 67% of North Dakota's population, but rural schools were not ideally suited to the task. The immigrants tended to cluster in nationality groups in geographic areas of the state, giving communities distinct ethnic identities. The largest ethnic groups were comprised of Germans from Russia and Norwegians. The inability of teacher and immigrant student to communicate led to humorous, and occasionally traumatic, incidents. Although children struggled to use English in school lessons, they reverted to their native language when out of school. Some county superintendents, recognizing that students would learn English more rapidly if forced to use it on the playground, instructed teachers to forbid the speaking of any foreign language at school. Memorization and repetition were commonly used to teach English. Some schools also offered classes in English to adults. In addition to teaching English, the schools were charged with the responsibility of inspiring patriotism in the immigrants. Some immigrants retained strong cultural ties with the old country and viewed Americanization as corruption of traditional values. Many did not value education for their children. However, in time, the rural school Americanized the immigrants' children.   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, Adult Education, Bilingualism, Cultural Influences

Staiger, Ralph C. (1979). Roads to Reading. This book is a collection of ideas that have been used in many countries for the encouragement of reading. Its purposes are to provide information about reading and the reading habit; to put forward examples of local, national, and international reading promotion activities selected as useful, representative of different approaches, and adaptable to other places; and to suggest ways in which groups and individuals can encourage others to contract the reading habit. The background of reading is discussed in the first section of the book. Emphasis is given to how people read, who influences reading, and how to change reading habits. Promoting reading is the topic of the second section. Specific subjects dealt with are: developing reading habits, reading research, the reading child, library outreach, and evaluating readership and readership programs. Programs from many countries, including Japan, Brazil, Singapore, India, Canada, Australia, Russia, Tanzania, Germany, Venezuela, Korea, Finland, Hungary, and the United States are also described in this section. The appendixes contain two bibliographies on motivation for reading–one an international bibliography and the other a select bibliography drawn from information in the ERIC data base. Descriptors: Adults, Annotated Bibliographies, Change Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education

Feldmesser, Robert A., Ed. (1979). Report of an Exchange Between the United States and the Soviet Union in the Area of Higher Education. The papers and discussion generated by exchange visits of American and Soviet educators are reprinted or summarized. The purpose of the visits was to exchange information and to study each country's system of higher education. Seminars held in the United States concentrated on two topics: selection and guidance of students in higher education, and the meaning of the undergraduate degree. The topics chosen for the seminars held in the Soviet Union were manpower planning for higher education purposes, and nontraditional forms of higher education. Papers presented in the United States were: Guidance, Selection, and Access to Higher Education in the United States; Methods of Direct (Short-Term) and Extended (Long-Term) Selection of Students for Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education; American Higher Education and the Bachelor's Degree; and On the Comparability of Levels of Education in the U.S.S.R. and Foreign Countries. Papers presented in Russia were: New Forms of Higher Education in the U.S.S.R.; An Introduction to Non-Traditional Education in the United States; Methodological Issues in the Forecasting and Long-Range Planning of Training of Specialists with Higher Education; and Manpower Forecasting for Work and for Society. Summaries of discussions are also presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Admission Criteria, College Students, Colleges, Degree Requirements

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