Bibliography: Russia (page 134 of 140)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Russia is NOT the Enemy website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Collins W. Burnett, Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, Betty Reardon, Margret A. Winzer, I. L. Kandel, W. S. Jesien, Richard B. Speaker, Eva Nordland, Anna Tolman Smith, and Robert Phillipson.

Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior (1923). Some Industrial Art Schools of Europe and Their Lessons for the United States. Bulletin, 1922, No. 48. Between 1881 and 1889, a series of seven volumes was published by the French Government as a result of an investigation made by Marius Vachon. He visited the principal schools, museums, societies, and factories of the artistic industries throughout Europe, and his reports contain much basic information. It was felt that the translation of this material would be of great service in developing a system of industrial art education for the United States. Permission was therefore secured from the French Government to publish extracts from these reports. Vachon's knowledge of his subject enabled him to seize the salient points and underlying principles, and these are as vital and important to the American manufacturer, to the artist, and to the educator, at the present moment as when they were written some 35 years ago. After consultation with the director of the Industrial Art Survey, it was decided to include in this translation only those countries from which recent reports had not been secured for the survey. The translator has selected those schools whose plans and methods seemed to offer guidance for the organization of a practical system of industrial and artistic education in the United States. Appendixes include: (1) Program of studies of the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts at St. Petersburg; (2) Education and art in Soviet Russia; (3) Occupation of pupils at Brussels Academy of Fine Arts; (4) Occupation of pupils at the Ghent Industrial School; (5) Outline of organization of schools studies; (6) A system of industrial-artistic education combining all schools in this study; (7) Industries derived from the classic arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture; and (8) Courses for students of the decorative arts at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts at Antwerp. [Extracts from the studies made for the French Government by Marios Vachon. Translated by Florence N. Levy. Best copy available has been provided.]   [More]  Descriptors: Art Education, Fine Arts, Museums, Foreign Countries

Kintzer, Frederick C. (1994). International Developments in Higher Education: New Perspectives on Nonuniversities. A nonuniversity is a short-term, short-cycle college or institute that provides vocational and technical training toward diplomas and certificates for compulsory school or high school graduates. Continuing education for adults is also commonplace in established systems, but preuniversities studies are offered almost exclusively in two-year colleges in the United States and Canada. Structurally, the nonuniversity in the U.S., Great Britain, and other nations of the British Commonwealth comprise the third rung of three-tier systems of higher education, with traditional universities and state universities and liberal arts colleges making up the other two tiers. In most countries where nonuniversities are new or are now being planned, two tracks of higher education are favored: degree-granting universities, and colleges and universities specializing in technical and vocational education for postcompulsory graduates. In much of the world, nonuniversities are poorly supported. Private sponsorship is common in Central and South America and Pacific Rim countries, but government sponsorship is growing in Japan and Mexico. Public nonuniversities are developing throughout Europe and in several African nations, notably Kenya. The global nature of the world demands greater attention to international studies in courses required for advanced degrees in education. Double doctorates, single doctoral-level course requirements, and international components in regular courses are possible strategies for incorporating information on international higher education into graduate programs. Information on nonuniversities in Russia, Belaras, Germany, Hungary, Czech and Slovak Federal Republics, Slovenia, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, and Mexico is provided. Contains 19 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Comparative Education, Foreign Countries, Institutional Characteristics

White, Jane N., Ed.; Burnett, Collins W., Ed. (1981). Higher Education Literature: An Annotated Bibliography. An annotated bibliography on higher education is presented that is limited to programs and phenomena in two- and four-year accredited degree-granting colleges and universities. The following sections and topics are covered: (1) Historical Background and Nature and Scope of American Higher Education (ancient, medieval, and U.S. education, public/private diversity, philosophy, problems in the 1970s, relation to society, and unique characteristics of higher education); (2) Teaching-Learning Environment (continuing education, faculty, instructional technology, professional education, research and evaluation, and retention); (3) Organization and Administration (effects of administrative styles, accreditation, governance, collective bargaining, legal affairs, planning and budget, retirement, and student affairs); (4) Community and Junior Colleges (administration, evaluation, articulation, finance, programs, state coordination, etc.); (5) Comparative Systems of Higher Education (Africa; Australia; Canada; China; Eastern Europe; Great Britain; India; Iran; Israel; Japan; Latin America; Russia; Southeast Asia; West Indies; and Western Europe); and (6) Higher Education as a Specialized Field of Study. In all, 1,618 references are cited. Appendices include: selected reference sources; an annotated bibliography of selected professional journals related to the study of higher education; definitions of some terms in higher education; working outline to study the development of American higher education; selected higher education programs, departments, and centers in the United States; federal legislation affecting higher education; land-grant colleges and universities; major national associations; accrediting associations; grant colleges and universities; major national associations; accrediting associations; abbreviations of selected national agencies and organizations related to higher education; and addresses of selected publishers. An author and subject index are provided. Descriptors: Accreditation (Institutions), Accrediting Agencies, Annotated Bibliographies, College Administration

Indigenous Affairs (1997). Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997. This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on Canada discuss regional agreements that protect land rights and promote indigenous self-determination; opposition of the Innu Nation to Canadian military training flights that are adversely affecting their health, cultural revival, and environment; and the defeat of a Nunavut plebiscite that would have guaranteed equal numbers of male and female legislators in the new territory. Articles on Latin America discuss the presentation of the 1996 Bartolome de las Casas Award to the Federation of Natives of Madre de Dios (FENAMAD) for the defense of isolated and "noncontacted" indigenous peoples in the Peruvian Amazon; legalization of gold prospector enclaves on indigenous lands in Raposa-Serra do Sol, Brazil; indigenous politics and elections in Ecuador and Bolivia; negotiations on construction of a naval base in Kuna territory, Panama; assassination by Brazilian youths of Galdino Pataxo, a councillor negotiating land boundaries; indigenous mobilization in Argentina seeking implementation of constitutional guarantees concerning bilingual education, land rights, community land ownership, and control over natural resources; and human rights violations and murders of indigenous leaders in Colombia. Other articles cover politics, human rights, environmental issues, and cultural and linguistic rights in Papua New Guinea, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Russia, the Philippines, Botswana, Namibia, Australia, "French" Polynesia, and the United Nations and its agencies. Descriptors: Canada Natives, Civil Liberties, Conservation (Environment), Cultural Maintenance

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed. (1995). Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic Human Rights, Past and Present" (Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Robert Phillipson); "Typology of Language Legislation" (Joseph-G. Turi); "Personal Names and Human Rights" (Bjorn H. Jernudd); "Language Policy in the United States: A History of Cultural Genocide" (Eduardo Hernandez-Chavez); "The Discourse of Disinformation: The Debate on Bilingual Education and Language Rights in the United States" (Jim Cummins); "Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union versus Estonia" (Mart Rannut); "Maori Language Rights in New Zealand" (Timoti S. Karetu); "The Sami Language Act" (Ole Henrik Magga); "Australia's Language Policies and Minority Rights: A Core Value Perspective" (J. J. Smolicz); "Combating Educational Disadvantage Among Lebanese Australian Children" (John Gibbons, William White, Pauline Gibbons); "Indigenous Education in Latin America: Policies and Legal Frameworks" (Rainer Enrique Hamel); "Linguistic Rights for Amerindian Peoples in Latin America" (Hamel); "'Minority' Cultures and Their Communication Rights" (Lachman M. Khubchandani); "Kashmiri, a Majority-Minority Language: An Exploratory Essay" (Makhan L. Tickoo); "and "Killing a Mother Tongue–How the Kurds Are Deprived of Linguistic Human Rights" (Skutnabb-Kangas, Sertac Bucak).  Appended are extracts from selected United Nations and regional documents covering linguistic human rights. Contains a consolidated bibliography and an index. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Civil Liberties, Classification, Democratic Values

Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed. (1994). Comparative Studies in Special Education. This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of exceptional conditions; (2) identification of exceptionalities; (3) labeling the handicapped population; (4) the social context of special education; (5) the legal and bureaucratic structure of special education; (6) teachers, schools, curriculum, and pedagogy for special education; (7) major controversies and issues in special education; and (8) emerging and future trends in special education. Part 1 contains four case studies of countries where special education is very limited. They are: "South Africa" (David R. Donald); "Papua New Guinea" (Barend Vlaardingerbroek et al.); "Senegal" (Sabou Sarr); and "West Bank and Gaza Strip" (Samir J. Dukmak). Part 2 contains nine case studies of nations with emerging special education: "Nigeria" (Theresa B. Abang); "Islamic Republic of Iran" (G. Ali Afrooz); "Brazil" (Lucia Gomes Vieira Dellagnelo); "Indonesia" (Conny Semiawan); "Egypt" (Wasfy Aziz Boulos); "Pakistan" (Mah Nazir Riaz); "China" (Xu Yun); "India" (Rita Agrawal); and "Uruguay" (Eloisa Garcia de Lorenzo). Five case studies of countries with segregated special education systems are in Part 3. They are: "Japan" (Giichi Misawa); "Taiwan" (Yung-Hwa Chen and Tai-Hwa Emily Lu); "Russia" (Vladimir I. Lubovsky and Evgenija Nikolaevno Martsinovskaja); "Czechoslovakia" (Marie Cerna); and "Hong Kong" (Nick Crawford and Mark Bray). The four case studies of Part 4 report on countries approaching integration: "Israel" (Yaacov Rand and Rivka Reichenberg); "Poland" (Wladyslawa Pilecka and Jan Pilecki); "Australia" (Geoffrey Swan); and "Canada" (Margret A. Winzer). Part 5 gives four case studies showing integrated special education: "Finland, Norway, and Sweden" (Kari Tuunainen); "United States" (Betty A. Hallenbeck and James M. Kauffman); "New Zealand" (David Mitchell and Patricia O'Brien); and "England and Wales" (John Dwyfor Davies and Maeve Landman). Descriptors: Area Studies, Comparative Education, Curriculum, Developed Nations

Reardon, Betty, Ed.; Nordland, Eva, Ed. (1994). Learning Peace: The Promise of Ecological and Cooperative Education. This book is a collection of writings by American, Russian, and Norwegian scholars who, in 1988, launched the Project on Ecological and Cooperative Education. Formation of the group was motivated by the conviction that the planet needs an ecologically conscious culture to overcome the fragmentation and specialization that is typical of the worldview of dominant societies today. The book examines how knowledge about planetary problems at the end of the twentieth century, and fatal threats to the planet resulting from rivalries among powerful individuals, cultures and states, have an impact on environmental education. Chapter titles include: (1) "New World-New Thinking-New Education" (Eva Nordland); (2) "Learning Our Way to a Human Future" (Betty Reardon); (3) New Thinking: Its Application for New Learning" (Valentina Mitina); (4) "'Big Ideas' of Ecology That Every Peace Educator Should Know" (Willad J. Jacobson); (5) "Social Responsibility and Ecological Culture through Ecological Education" (Sergei Polozov); (6) "Educational Planning for an Ecological Future" (Susan Aheam); (7) "Education for Democracy, Social Responsibility, and Creative Activity in the Russia of Today" (Anatoly Golovatenko); (8) "Peace Education, Social Responsibility, and Cooperation" (Galina Kovalyova); (9) "Ecological Leadership in an Age of Diminishing Superpower Expectations" (Robert W. Zuber); and (10) "Steps to a Renewal of Education: Concluding Words" (Eva Nordland). Additional sections contain: (1) questions for reflection and discussion that correspond to the chapters; (2) information about the authors; (3) a list of 49 suggested readings; and (4) an index. Descriptors: Cultural Education, Ecology, Elementary Secondary Education, Environmental Education

Kintzer, Frederick C. (1994). Higher Education Approaches the 21st Century: New Perspectives on Nonuniversities. The nonuniversity represents one of the most important trends in postsecondary education worldwide. Whether part of two- or three-tiered educational systems, nonuniversities offer certificates and diplomas in semiprofessional, technical, and vocational fields, and increasingly provide continuing, lifelong education. Such short-term, short-cycle colleges and institutes are sponsored by many of the approximately 180 sovereign nations of the world. These institutions, including American and Canadian community colleges, the French instituts universitaires technologiques, the regional college system in Norway, Japan's junior colleges, and to a certain extent, the British further education colleges, are slowly gaining higher education status. Distance learning is a common characteristic of short-term, short-cycle nonuniversities. The structures and patterns of higher education around the world include the following: (1) in Belaras, a network of post-diploma courses involving commercial cooperatives emphasize specialist upgrading in programs lasting from 1 month to over a year; (2) in Ukraine, junior specialist courses are now part of multi-stage reforms; (3) Kazakhstan has a number of new institutions for upgrading technical skills, including teaching; (4) Bulgaria is developing three-year postsecondary schools; (5) Albania recently announced 10 Fulbright-Hays awards for 1994-95; (6) the extension of the nonuniversity concept is under heavy debate in central and eastern European countries, with major reforms appearing as national policy statements; (7) in Japan, formal higher education is provided at universities and junior/technical colleges, while nonformal adult education is provided at "grand schools" and specialized technical schools; and (8) after 30 years of a three-tier plan, higher education in Australia has been replaced by a duo track system of universities and technical and further education colleges. Other countries discussed in the paper include Russia, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, Czech and Slovak Federal Republics, Taiwan, Korea, New Zealand, Great Britain, and Mexico.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Comparative Education, Foreign Countries, Institutional Characteristics

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter (1996). Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996. The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access personnel updated on current national and international developments, issues, and technologies in the field. This document contains 10 issues of the newsletter published in 1996 (July-August and November-December are combined issues). Highlights include: a report on the archiving of digital information (January); a conference of the Commission of the European Union and the Task Force on Digital Information on long-term access to electronic publications (February); a report on cooperative preservation in Canada, and the Council on Library Resources' statement on fair use (March); excerpts from testimony in support of the National Endowment for the Humanities, stressing the importance of the federal role in preservation (April); a documentary on the preservation of information in the electronic age, and the formation of a task force on Hispanic literary heritage (May); a report proposing strategies for digital archiving (June); recommendations for National Digital Library Federation (NDLF) leadership roles in discovery and retrieval, intellectual property rights and economic models, and archiving of digital information (July-August); NDLF constituted as a charter organization (September); a paper focusing on preservation challenges in Russia (October); and a report on mass deacidification, and the first meeting of the conjoint board of the Commission on Preservation and the Council on Library Resources (November-December).   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Archives, Documentaries, Electronic Text

Smith, Anna Tolman; Jesien, W. S. (1917). Higher Technical Education in Foreign Countries: Standards and Scope. Bulletin, 1917, No. 11, Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. Interest in technical education of the higher order has been greatly increased by the European war, and as a consequence numerous inquiries have been received at the Bureau of Education with regard to the higher technical schools of foreign countries. These inquiries relate in the main to the organization and conduct of the foreign schools, their courses of instruction and the relative value of their diplomas. The endeavor has been made in this bulletin to meet such inquiries, whether general or specific, by means of information drawn from official and other authoritative sources. In a broad survey of the subject it is seen that while the term technical is used often in a comprehensive sense, it is more generally restricted to schools which specialize in engineering and the mechanical arts that involve the applications of science. On account of the varying scope of technical institutions and the differences between countries in respect to classification, it is impossible to employ a uniform scheme of presentation for institutions selected as typical and equally impossible to institute exact comparisons between their programs and their standards. The institutions here classed as higher technical require the same entrance qualifications as the universities of their respective countries and confer diplomas that have equal value with the university diplomas. These two conditions afford a basis of classification which has been maintained in the bulletin. The matter presented includes therefore (1) a survey of the studies preliminary to the higher technical schools; (2) accounts of typical schools; and (3) statistical summaries comprising additional institutions of the same order. Contents include: (1) Germany; (2) France; (3) Great Britain; (4) Ireland; (5) Switzerland; (6) Italy; (7) Austria; (8) Russia; (9) Japan; (10) Canada; and (11) South America. A bibliography and an index are included. (Contains 5 plates and 3 diagrams.) [Best copy available has been provided.]   [More]  Descriptors: Technical Education, Foreign Countries, Classification, Standards

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1992). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part XII: Foreign and International Media. The International Media section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Text and Context: A Case Study of International News Discourse" (Shujen Wang); "The Future of Public Service Broadcasting in Japan and the U.K.: A Comparative Analysis" (Roya Akhavan-Majid); "Reinventing Freedom of the Press: The Search for a Post-Soviet Model in the New Russia" (Lisa W. Holstein); "Global TV News in Developing Countries: CNN's Expansion to Egypt" (Joe S. Foote and Hussein Amin); "Source Credibility during the Gulf War: A Q-Study of Rural and Urban Saudi Arabian Citizens" (Safran S. Al-Makaty and others); "Journalistic Excellence in Two Different Political Systems: A Comparative Study of American and Chinese News Reporting Awards" (Louisa Ha); "Children of the Himalayas: The Message of Chipko: 'Travel of Information' in Chamoli, India" (Jawahara K. Saidullah); "Vaccination Messages on Nigerian Broadcasting Stations: Does Content Really Matter?" (Folu Ogundimu); "The Role of Women Journalists in Philippine Political Change" (Richard Shafer and Suzanna Hornig); "Anti-Americanism in South Korea: The Mass Media and the Politics of Signification" (Jae-kyoung Lee); "Development Journalism in an Asian Setting: A Study of Depthnews" (Floyd J. McKay); "The Legal Foundations of Mass Media Regulation in Guyana: A Commonwealth Caribbean Case Study" (M. Kent Sidel); and "Propaganda in the U.S. and Taiwan Television News: A Comparative Study of Political Affairs" (Li-Ning Huang).   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Comparative Analysis, Content Analysis, Developing Nations

Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed. (1997). Japan Studies through the Lenses of Different Disciplines: First Yearbook of the Japan Studies Association. [Papers from the Japan Studies Association Annual Conference (San Diego, California, 1995)], Japan Studies Association Journal. This yearbook presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The yearbook represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among five thematic sections: (1) "Japan Studies and the Arts" ("A Challenge to the Orientalism of Whistler: Hiroshige's Influence on Monet and Van Gogh," Fay Beauchamp; and "Paradigms of Japanese Culture as Reflected through Music and the Related Arts," Stephen R. Fuller); (2) "Inquiry into the Japanese Self" ("The Japanese Self," Sheila Fling; and "Recipe for Self and Soul in Decadent Times: Reflections on the Post-war Japanese Literary Sensibility," Louise Myers Kawada); (3) "Japan Studies and Curriculum" ("An Inquiry Unit on Japan for Undergraduate Methods Students in Elementary Education," Richard B. Speaker, Jr.; and "Infusing Japan Studies into the College Curriculum through Multicultural Literacy Courses," Elizabeth L. Willis); (4) "Japan Studies in International Perspectives" ("Japan and Russia: The Northern Territories Issue in the Post-War Era," Andrew S. Szarka; "Colonial Japan in Micronesia, 1914 to 1944," Dirk Anthony Ballendorf; and "China and Japan: Diverging Paths," Connie Mauney); and (5) "Reports on the Japan Studies Seminar in Japan, 1995" ("Report on the 1995 Seminar in Japan," Richard B. Speaker, Jr.; and "Impressions of a Japan Studies Faculty Development Seminar, Summer, 1995," Louise Myers Kawada).   [More]  Descriptors: Area Studies, Asian History, Asian Studies, Curriculum Enrichment

Samway, Katharine Davies, Ed.; McKeon, Denise, Ed. (1993). Common Threads of Practice: Teaching English to Children around the World. This text offers teacher accounts of teaching English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) in grades K-8 worldwide. Articles included are: (1) "Common Threads, Common Bonds" (Denise McKeon and Katharine Davies Samway); (2) "For a Brighter Future: SPEAK Project in Soweto" (Pippa Stein); (3) "The 'Essence of Sliding': Encouraging Elementary ESL Students To Become Creative Writers" (J. Wesley Eby); (4) "Watson and Son's EFL Class: Teaching English to Chinese Children Using Only English and a U.S. Peer" (Tim Watson); (5) "Teaching English in Russia" (Alevtina Poliak); (6) "Teaching English in Primary Schools in Brunei Darussalam" (Ng Seok Moi and Wendy Preston); (7) "Learning English Naturally in Emelie Parker's Classroom" (Sue Sherman); (8) "How Do They Learn To Read and Write?  Literacy Instruction in a Refugee Camp" (Lauren Hoyt); (9) "Team Teaching in Second Grade (Don't Pull Out the Kids, Pull In the Teacher)" (Carlyn Syvanen); (10) "English in Austrian Primary Schools" (Maria Felberbauer); (11) "Teaching English to Children in China" (Bi Qing); (12) "Primary Education and Language Teaching in Botswana" (Lydia Nyati Ramahobo and Janet Ramsay Orr); (13) "A Tale of Two Cultures: At Home in the German School Washington" (Donna Stassen); (14) "Teaching English in Estonia: Using Reading and Writing Process Methods To Teach EFL" (Emma Wood Rous). (Each essay contains references. A teacher resources list is included.) Descriptors: Elementary Education, English (Second Language), Foreign Countries, German

Ryba, Gary (1970). Senior Attitudes on Current Issues. In the spring of 1969, questionnaires were sent to a random sample of all 1969 seniors at the State University of New York at Buffalo to gather information of student attitudes concerning civil rights, Vietnam, poverty, selective service, and East-West differences. Of the 106 men and 90 women that responded to the questionnaire, a majority of students reported there had been a change in their thinking on the issue of civil rights since their college experience, especially in the areas of increased awareness, increased knowledge, or greater concern regarding this problem. A majority of students indicated that their attitude regarding the way in Vietnam had changed since they entered college, with 75% stating unequivocally that they were against U.S. involvement in Vietnam and that we should withdraw our troops. The problem of poverty seemed to be more of an enigma to students than the problems of civil rights or Vietnam; there were fewer specific positions taken and fewer solutions proposed than for either of the 2 previous questions. More than twice as many students said that they had changed their thoughts on the issue of selective service, with 74% against the draft as it existed at that time or beginning to question its advisability. A sizeable number of students indicated that their views on the issue of East-West differences had changed during their college years, and most students spoke specifically of Russia and the United States in their responses, rather than in the more vague terms of East and West.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Change, Attitude Measures, Civil Rights, Higher Education

Kandel, I. L. (1915). The Training of Elementary School Teachers in Mathematics in the Countries Represented in the International Commission on the Teaching of Mathematics. Bulletin, 1915, No. 39. Whole Number 666, United States Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior. The accompanying report deals with the mathematical training of prospective teachers in elementary schools as described in the reports submitted by the International Commission of the Teaching of Mathematics to the Fifth International Congress of Mathematicians, held at Cambridge, England, in August, 1912. A comparative study of the facts presented in these reports is of interest for those engaged in the training of teachers in this country, if only because they indicate that the standards elsewhere are as chaotic as they are here. The requirements of the normal schools, or corresponding institutions vary from a review of the elementary-school arithmetic to the mathematics required for entrance to colleges and universities; or, from another point of view, from an emphasis on the purely professional needs limited to the immediate requirements of the elementary schools, to academic and cultural aims founded on the principle that the more a teacher knows about the subject, in addition to the purely professional training, the more successful will be his teaching. But, great as is the variety of standards and aims in Europe, almost every standard finds a parallel in this country, owing to the absence of uniformity–a condition almost paralleled in England and Switzerland. But, if a generalization may be permitted, it would be true to say that the academic standards in the best systems are higher in the more advanced countries of Europe than they are in the United States. Countries included in this report are: (1) Belgium; (2) Denmark; (3) England; (4) France; (5) Germany; (6) Hungary; (7) Italy; (8) Russia; (9) Sweden; (10) Switzerland; and (11) the United States. A bibliography is included. (Contains 2 footnotes.) [This bulletin was written with the editorial cooperation of David Eugene Smith, William F. Osgood, and J.W.A. Young. Best copy available has been provided.]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Educational History, Mathematics Education, Elementary School Mathematics

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